This is the entity entrusted with controlling the quality, promoting and providing the generic image of Malaga wines.
The Regulating Board for the “Malaga” and Sierras de Malaga” Designations of Origin (DO) is made up a Chairperson, a Deputy Chairperson and fourteen representatives - seven wine-producers and seven bodega owners - of which ten represent the “Malaga” DO and four, the “Sierras de Malaga” DO, and two of the latter, one wine-producer and one bodega owner, represent the sub-area “Serranía de Ronda”. The Chairperson and representatives are elected every four years.
To carry out its quality control duties, the Regulating Board has an inspection service and a Tasting Committee.
The members registered with the Regulating Board for the “Malaga” and “Sierras de Malaga” Designations of Origin, wine-producers and bodega owners, must comply with the Regulations published in the Official Andalusian Gazette, by order of the Regional Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries on 9th January, which sets out how the grapes should be produced, how the wines should be manufactured, what their characteristics should be, and how they should be aged, as well as the rights and obligations of the registered members, and the infractions, penalties and processes that derive from failure to comply with these Regulations.
Those wines that meet the requirements established in the Regulations obtain the right to bear a seal or back label certifying their origin and quality. When the Regulating Board promotes Malaga wines, it uses a generic label.
Consejo Regulador de las Denominaciones de Origen Málaga,
Sierras de Málaga y Pasas de Málaga
Plaza de los Viñeros 1, Málaga 29008
Telephone: +0034 952 22 79 90
Email:: firstname.lastname@example.org · www.vinosypasasdemalaga.com
Apparently, winemaking first began in Armenia and spread to the Mediterranean coastline countries, where the vineyards found the ideal climate and terrain for the rapid expansion and growth of this industry.
Guillén Robles in his work "Historia de Málaga y su provincia" (The History of Malaga and the Province) says that “the Greeks settled in Malaga and taught the local people how to prune the vines”, which would have been around 600 B.C., when Mainake was founded.
The first historical testimony found on winemaking in Malaga dates back to the Early Roman Empire, and consists in a fermentation tank discovered in Cartama, around 30 kilometres from the capital.
During the Moorish conquest the rigid laws of the Koran, which prohibited the consumption of wine, came into conflict with the long-standing local wine-drinking tradition. However, little by little, the harsh penalties, which included the death penalty for being drunk, were substituted by fines (garima) and these, in turn, were progressively replaced by taxes (qabäla), which were payable by the wine merchants and became one of the most important public resources. When the Catholic Monarchs re-conquered Malaga in 1487, the situation was that which Cecilio García de la Leña describes in "Conversaciones históricas malagueñas" (Historical Conversations on Malaga): “To ensure a happy, wealthy and powerful city, the first thing our conquering Catholic Princes did was to establish the "Hermandad de Viñeros" (Winemakers Guild), to ensure the continuance of the winemaking that, even under the domination of the Moors, had formed an important part of the trade and wealth of their subjects. They recognised that the vines would provide, apart from happiness and wealth for their much-loved people, an important asset to the Royal Treasury, due to the many profits it would provide when transferred to other realms.”
Years later, on 12th January 1502, the Catholic Monarchs confirmed, by Royal Order in Seville, the creation of the Winemakers Guild with privileges that were re-confirmed by Juana of Castile in 1513.
In 1791, Spain’s Ambassador in Moscow, Mr. Gálvez, gave the Tsarina and Empress of Russia, Catherine II, some crates of Malaga wine and so great was her pleasure that she declared exempt from taxes all Malaga wines imported to the Empire from the Winemakers Guild.
The Winemakers Guild continues to exist today in its guild sense in the Regulating Board and in its religious brotherhood sense, in the VERY ILLUSTRIOUS AND VENERABLE Brotherhood dedicated to the images of Our Father Ntro. Padre Jesús Nazareno a Viñeros and Our Lady Ntra Señora del Traspaso y Soledad de Viñeros of San Lorenzo Mártin.
In 1806, by Royal Order, the Casa y Compañía de Comercio de Viñeros de Málaga (Malaga Wine House and Trading Company) was created in which “to prevent any possible adulteration of the Company’s produce, all containers, boxes and sacks that contain such produce will bear complex marks, difficult to falsify. Two intelligent persons shall be chosen to ensure that the wines attain the maximum level of perfection possible.”
On 1st July 1900 the Regulations of Malaga Wine Exporting Producers’ Guild Association appeared with the object of protecting the general interests of the wine trade, issuing certificates, appointing referees and appraisers and, particularly, guaranteeing by way of a seal of origin, the authenticity of the wines exported.
At the request of the Winemaker and Wine-producers’ guilds, the right to a Regulating Board was granted on 8th September and its Regulations approved on 20th October 1937, which remained in effect until 21st December. All wine produced under the Malaga Designation of Origin must undergo the corresponding analysis, with a report from the Grading Committee, based on which the certificate and numbered guarantee seals are granted or refused.
In 1999 the third “Malaga” Designation of Origin Regulation was published, by order of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of 24th June.
On 9th January 2001 the fourth Regulation was published in the Official Andalusian Gazette, in which the “Sierras de Malaga” Designation of Origin was also recognised, the name of the board becoming The Regulating Board for the “Malaga” and “Sierras de Malaga” Designations of Origin. This last set of regulations was ratified by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foodstuffs on 22nd November 2001, and published in the Official State Gazette on 10th December of the same year.
Under the designations “Málaga” and “Sierras de Málaga” the following wines are protected:
DO “Sierras de Málaga”:
White, rosé and red wines with less that 15% alcohol content
Types of wines.
The wines marketed under the “Malaga” Designation of Origin are classified as:
Variety names may be used when the wine has at least an 85% grape content corresponding to the variety in question, after deducting the amount of product employed in any possible sweetening process.
Liquor wines are considered those obtained from the varieties "Pero Ximén" and/or "Moscatel" in accordance with the local, traditional and consistent customs, with the addition of wine alcohol, with an acquired alcoholic strength no lower than 15% vol. and no higher than 22% vol., and a total alcoholic strength of no less than 17.5% vol., except in the case of dry liquor wines, which may have a minimum of 15% vol.
Concentrated wine must and dry wines of the "Doradilla", "Lairen" and "Romé" wines may also be used in their production, as long as they do not represent, as a whole, more than 30% of the total in the final product.
In the production of sweet liquor wines, sweet wine will be mainly used (over and above 50%) with the characteristics defined under article 13 of the Regulations and containing at least 4% vol. of naturally acquired fermentation alcohol.
Natural Sweet Wine:
Natural Sweet Wine is wine produced as described under article 13.1.1 c) of the Regulations.
Naturally Sweet Wine:
Is wine produced as described under article 13.2. of the Regulations
Designations of the protected wines
All protected wines will be aged and will be called:
Designation and period of aging:
Notwithstanding the aforementioned, Pero Ximén and/or Moscatel white wines that have been produced with no addition of grape syrup may be consumed without undergoing the ageing and maturing process, and shall be called “Malaga Pálido” (Malaga Pale).
Depending on their sugar content, protected wines may be called:
Sweet (sugar content in excess of 45 g/l), semi-sweet (sugar content between 12 and 45 g/l), semi-dry (sugar content between 4 and 12 g/l), and dry (sugar content of less than 4 g/l).
The traditional designations that may be given to the wines protected by the “Malaga” Designation of Origin, apart from the aforementioned and others that that define the characteristics of the products, are as follows:
"Lágrima": Meaning literally “tear”, it designates wine that has been produced using must obtained without any mechanical treatment, that is, it flows spontaneously when the grapes are trod. These wines are aged for two years and may be called “Lacrimae Christi”.
"Pajarete": This is an aged liquor wine, or an aged natural sweet wine, with a total sugar content of between 45 g/l and 140 g/l, produced without the addition of grape syrup. Its colour runs from amber to dark amber.
According to the variety of grape used:
"Pero Ximén or Pedro Ximénez": Wines produced using a variety of grapes of the same name.
"Moscatel": Wines produced using a variety of grapes of the same name.
According to their colour:
"Dorado or Golden": Designates an aged natural sweet or naturally sweet liquor wine, produced with no added grape syrup.
"Rojo dorado or Rot gold" (Tawny): Designates an aged liquor wine produced with up to 5% vol. of added grape syrup.
"Oscuro or Brown": Designates an aged liquor wine produced with between to 5% vol. to 10% vol. of added grape syrup.
"Color" (Coloured): Designates an aged liquor wine produced with between to 10% vol. to 15% vol. of added grape syrup.
"Negro o Dunkel" (Dark): Designates an aged liquor wine produced with over 15% vol. of added grape syrup.
According to the sugar content:
"Dulce Crema or Cream": Designates an aged liquor wine, or an aged natural sweet wine with sugar content of between 100 g/l and 140 g/l. Its colour runs from amber to dark amber.
"Dry Pale or Pale Dry": Designates a liquor wine with total sugar content no higher than 45 g/l, produced without added grape syrup.
"Pale Cream": Designates an aged liquor wine with sugar content in excess of 45 g/l, produced without the addition of grape syrup, sweet natural wine or naturally sweet wine.
"Sweet": Designates an aged liqueur wine or an aged natural sweet wine with total sugar content in excess of 140 g/l. Its colour runs from amber to black.
The designations "Vino Maestro" (Master wine) and "Vino Tierno" (Young wine) are given to those wines produced as described under article 13 of the Regulations.
White: Pale, yellow wines with varietal aroma, elegant and clean with a fresh fruity flavour and acid overtones.
Red: Full-bodied wines, well structured in which mineral and “terroir” (earthy) flavours and aromas prevail.
Literature, music, painting, labels.
“Malaga” wines are linked historically to the arts. Due to its uniqueness and its noble ancestry it has been cited in many literary works.
Written mentions of the wines produced in the benign climate of Malaga have been found dating back to Roman times, although it was with the Muslim presence in Malaga, the paradise land or as the Moorish poets called the city, “the moon’s crown”, “hidden treasure” or “city of health”, when these wines became the most abundant literary inspiration for the authors of the times.
However, the wines of Malaga are not only referred to in literature; music and art also dignified them as artistic elements.
For example, in scene 10 of the opera "La Cenerentola" (Cinderella) (1817), by Gioacchino Rossini:
Premio bellísimo di piastre sedici
A chi più malaga
The label constitutes another wine-related artistic expression and the Malaga wine labels have always been of extreme beauty. The great quality of the printing together with their artistic excellence, in which publicity merges with the art of painting make them a true work of art, particularly the older ones.
Test tasting Malaga wines is synonymous to a multitude of sensations. The huge range of colours, aromas and flavours open the doors to curiosity as each Malaga wine represents a new discovery.
From sweet to dry wines; colours that go from golden yellow to black; aromas that run from floral and fruity, in young wines, to the complex aromas of the añejos and trasañejos; and flavours that vary from the fresh varietals to those typical of mature aged wines, offer an ample choice of Malaga wines in which there is one to suit all tastes and every occasion.
In the kitchen, Malaga wines contribute with all their sensorial complexity to make dishes that are true delicacies, whilst cocktails and ice creams are other gastronomic areas in which Malaga wines are very much recommended.
The “Sierras de Malaga” DO wines - whites, reds and rosés - that complete the range of Malaga wines, are natural wines that offer a wide variety of aromas.
Colour: Yellow, straw yellow.
Aroma: Varietal (Moscatel, Pero Ximén), clean, elegant and fruity.
Flavour: Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, or sweet; flavoursome, fruity, with tones of tartness.
CRIANZA WINES (aged in wood and bottle for at least two years): MALAGA, MALAGA NOBLE, MALAGA AÑEJO, AND MALAGA TRASAÑEJO.
The more aged and mature the wine, the greater their intensity and complexity.
Colour: From yellow, through mahogany, amber, golden, golden red, dark, to black. The yellow-green iodine iridescence is typical of these wines.
Aroma: Aromas of candied fruit, fruit compote and liquor fruits, coffee, liquorice, plums; perky, silky and satiny. As the wine is aged there is an increase in the tones of toasted aldehyde, confectionary, old, wood, citrus, ketonic acid, toffee caramel and nuts (hazelnut, walnut and almonds).
Flavour: Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet or sweet. Depending on maturity, there are more or less dense flavours of hazelnut and toasted caramels and ketonic acid. These wines are full-bodied, persistent and flavoursome.
WHITE: Pale, yellow wines with varietal aromas, elegant and clean with a fresh fruity flavour and acid overtones.
RED: Full-bodied wines, well structured in which mineral and “terroir” (earthy) flavours and aromas prevail.
MALAGA WINE ROUTES
Wine is great to take on walks or excursions.
There are a number of wine bodega owners who organise visits to their facilities as well as inns that use our Malaga DO wines to attract customers.
Also, let us not forget the Wine Museum.
MALAGA, THE CARDINAL OF WINES
In 1224, the King of France, Philip Auguste organised the “Battle of the Wines”, in which the most prestigious wines of the times took part in what was possible the first wine-tasting contest in history.
Malaga participated in this contest obtaining an important classification, as Malaga wine was designated the CARDINAL OF WINES.
MALAGA WINES IN RUSSIA
Russia had always been a large consumer of Malaga wines, particularly amongst the Russian aristocracy, including the Imperial family, where it obtained great fame.
According to a document owned by the Regulating Board, “in 1791, Spain’s Ambassador in Russia, Mr Gálvez, gave the Tsarina and Empress of Russia, Catherine II, some crates of Malaga wine and so great was her pleasure that she declared exempt from taxes all Malaga wines imported to the Empire from the Winemakers Guild."
FIRST REGULATING BOARD.
On 8th July 1933 the Malaga Winemaker and Wine-producers Guilds were granted the right to set up a Regulating Board for the Malaga Designation of Origin, the first Regulations of which were approved on 20th October 1937. These Regulations remained in effect until 21st December 1976
ONE, TWO, THREE...
One of the questions asked on this renowned Spanish Television programme was: “What wines were served at the wedding of King Alphonse XIII?” None of the contestants were able to give an answer, which was supplied by the presenter who indicated that the wines served were Malaga and Jerez wines.
According to legend, Peter, son of Simens, brought with him from his native Germany a wine shoot that had been growing on the banks of the Rhin and planted it in Malaga. This was the origin of the variety known as Pero Ximén. All of this is set out in Merula’s Cosmography, published in 1636, with which German (Berkenmeyer) and Spanish (Masdeu) geographers coincide.
Nevertheless, José Garijo affirms that it is more likely that variety took its name from a Pero Ximén who was probably a Christian farmer at the end of the 15th century, beginning of the 16th. The same author considers that “what we can be sure of is that the Pedro Ximén vines that exist outside of Malaga, have originated from Malaga vines”, taking into account the mentions made by Cecilio García de la Leña in 1792.
MALAGA WINE FOR A SPEECH
In the first ever edition of the complete works of Antonio Canovas del Castillo, the biographic profile mentions the author’s custom of taking Malaga wine before making his speeches in order to “give his words more oomph”.
THE MALAGA “SPOON”
A silver utensil used to discern the colour of the wine. The “spoon”, which has a hollow handle, is inserted perpendicularly in the barrel to extract the wine.
Once the wine has been collected, the spoon is turned and the wine runs to the concave part of the spoon, where the wine taster can discern the different tones produced by the different concentrations of colour.
It is the only utensil of its kind in the world.
Author: Cecilio García de la Leña (1792)
Published by: Servicio de publicaciones e intercambio científico de la Universidad de Málaga & Consejo Regulador Denominación de Origen Málaga (1997)
Subject matter: Descripción de cómo se elaboran los auténticos y genuinos vinos de Málaga y los territorios y variedades (Description of the manufacturing processes of Malaga Wines, wine-making areas and varieties).
EL VINO DE MÁLAGA
Author: Adolfo Vasserot Fuentes (1.792)
Published by: Grupo de ordenación comercial exterior de Málaga (1.978)
Subject matter: Viña. Zonas de producción. Elaboración y crianza de los vinos.
Comercialización: Como se toman los Málaga. Opiniones sobre el vino de Málaga. (Vineyards, production areas, commercialisation, uses and opinions.)
ESTAMPAS DEL VINO DE MÁLAGA Y DE LA AXARQUÍA
Author: José Garijo Ruiz (1.908-1.996)
Published by: Ediciones la Farola (1.985)
Subject matter: Viñedos de Málaga. La Axarquía. El vino Mountain. Vino
de punto. Vino de mesa. Anecdotario. Vocabulario. La viña, la pisa y la
bodega. Los escritores y el vino de Málaga. (Vineyards, La Axarquía region, different varieties of wines; anecdotes and vocabulary; the vines, wine treading and bodegas; writers and Malaga Wine).
Author: Félix Valencia Díaz
Published by: Departamento de investigación y desarrollo de Larios S.A.
Subject matter: Información bibliográfica. Procedimientos de elaboración y análisis. Discusión de resultados. Aplicaciones básicas. (Bibliography; manufacturing and analysis processes; discussion on results; basic applications).
Author: Manuel Martínez Molina
Published by: Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga
Subject matter: Representación gráfica de etiquetas de vinos de Málaga, clasificadas por temas. (Images of Malaga Wine labels, classified by subject).
Information supplied by Consejo Regulador de la Denominación de Origen Málaga (Malaga Designation of Origin Regulating Board)